In 2014, the Anal Cancer HSIL Outcomes Research Study, a multicentre stage III Randomised Controlled Trial was launched in the USA.  

It is randomising HIV positive patients over 35 years of age with a new diagnosis of High Grade AIN to receive either topical treatments, ablative treatments or active monitoring.  

They are still recruiting and plan to publish their results in 2022.  

At the moment, there is very little evidence about the best treatment for AIN and whether or not treating AIN prevents the development of Anal SCC. We are looking forward to the results of this trial as we hope it will answer many  questions.  

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