Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ASCC) is an uncommon cancer with an incidence rate between 1 and 2 per 100000 per year. However, the incidence of ASCC is increasing rapidly, with up to 6.8% increase in men per year and 10.7% increase in women per year since 1971.
It is believed that the increasing numbers of HIV positive patients who are living longer on advanced antiretrovirals are likely to be contributing to the increasing burden of ASCC.
Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN) is the known precursor to ASCC. It is believed that by identifying and treating high grade AIN that ASCC could become a preventable cancer. ASCC also has excellent outcomes if identified early. Only 15% of ASCC present with metastasis and most patients are diagnosed with resectable T1 tumours. However, current guidelines are conflicting and not based on good quality clinical evidence,
The limiting factor to providing good quality evidence is the large samples size required to observe the relationship between AIN transformation and ASCC. This is yet to be achieved.
In response to this ongoing issue, we are developing an Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Registry to allow collaboration between international clinical communities.