The results from the ANCHOR study have been published. This is the first randomised control trial to finally determine the benefit of treating anal HSIL in the prevention of anal squamous cell carcinoma in PLWH. The study showed a 57% reduction in progression to cancer with thermo-ablation of anal HSIL. This has set a new gold standard in the management of anal HSIL and highlights the importance of promoting strategies for the early detection and treatment of anal HSIL in all high-risk populations. The effectiveness of different treatment modalities will need to be investigated in further detail.